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I. District Profile
The Ratlam is a distt. of Madhya Pradesh. Ratlam is situated in West region of Madhya Pradesh from 23 05' to 23 52' Longitude and 74 31' to 75 41' Latitude. It is bounded by Mandsaur District in North, Jhabua and Dhar on the South, Ujjain on the East, Chhitorgarh and Banswara District of Rajasthan on the West.
Ratlam is well connected both by Rails and Roads. Ratlam is a Railway Junction and it is a Divisional Head Quarter of Western Railways. It has both Broad Gauge and Meter Gauge Railway Lines. It is situated on Delhi- Mumbai railway line which passes through Ratlam and Kota.
Ratlam is situated on State Highway number 31 and 22. Ratlam is well connected by road to Madhya Pradesh and other states namely Gujarat and Rajasthan.
ii Geographical Features:
The total area of Ratlam district is 4861 Sq. Km. The Ratlam District having Six Tehsil and Six Blocks as follows:
Block Sailana, Bajna and Part of Ratlam Block are hilly area, where as other blocks are plain area. Soil thickness varies from very little to 60 cm. in most of the area of the district. The soil found here is black and red murrum type. The quantity of soil is almost 50% Black -50% red murrum. Sailana, Bajna and part of Ratlam block having Red Kunkar mixed murrum soil.
The famous Mahi and Chambal River passes through the Ratlam Distt. There are other numbers of rivers in Ratlam distt. Following is the map of Madhya Pradesh which shows exact location of Ratlam Distt.
iii. Climate Condition, Rainfall seasons etc:
The maximum temperature of Ratlam goes up to 44oC in the month of June where as lowest temperature goes up to 6oC in month of Dec. and January. The summer starts from month of mid March to mid June. Winter months are Nov. to Feb.
Ratlam receives an average annual rainfall of 954 mm. The highest rainfall is recorded during the months of July, August and September. The months receiving the lowest rainfall are April, December and May.
Table-Year- wise Rainfall of different blocks in mm, (1996-2007) District Ratlam
Source: Agriculture, 2006 and Collectorate, District Ratlam
Year Wise Details of Rainfall of Ratlam Distt.
iv Net Cultivated, Irrigated, Double/Multiple cropped, cultivable waste land and Forest etc.:
Land Use Pattern
The livelihood of most of the people in this area is dependent on agriculture. Land use for agriculture is predominated by Kharif crops in most parts of the district, as the tribals are dependent on rainfed farming of subsistence
Table - Land Utilization Pattern in Ratlam
II. Basic Infrastructure:
i. Roads and Railways:
Ratlam is well connected both by Rails and Roads. Ratlam is a Railway Junction and it is a Divisional head quarter of Western Railways. It has both Broad Gauge and Meter Gauge Railway Lines. It is situated on Delhi- Mumbai railway line which passes through Ratlam and Kota. It is also well connected Ahemdabad, Baroda, Bhopal, Indore, Ujjain, Chittorgarh and Udaipur.
Ratlam is situated on State Highway number 31 and 22. Ratlam is well connected by road to Ujjain, Indore and Mandsour of Madhya Pradesh and other states namely Banswara, Kota of Rajasthan and Baroda of Gujarat.
ii Irrigation (Canals, Tube wells, wells, tanks etc):
In Ratlam Distt. The total irrigated land is 30335 Hectare which has been irrigated through following means:
Irrigation in most of the area is doing by the tube well drilled personally by the farmers.
iii Rural Electrification:
Electric distribution system in Ratlam is in control with M.P. West Electric Distribution Company Limited. They have covered the 1051 villages of Ratlam Distt. But it is not properly distributed in few tribal villages of Tribal block Sailana and Bajna.
iv Power Supply Position:
The demand and supply gap of the power supply is large in this area particularly at the time of irrigation and at the time of summer.
Ø Power Supply Lines of Ratlam Distt. are as follows
· 33 KV Lines - 615.85
· 11 KV Lines - 4000.14
· Low Tension Lines - 11544.43
Ø No. of Power/ Transmission Transformers
· Power Transformer - 90 Capacity 357 MVA
· Transmission Transformers - 5620 Capacity 536774 KVA
Ø Power Supply Sub Centers
· 220 KV High Tension Sub Center in Ratlam, Nos. 2— 40 MVA Each
· 132 KV High Tension Sub Center in Mahu-Neemach Road Ratlam Nos. 2— 20 MVA Each
· 132 KV High Tension Sub Center in Mahu-Neemach Road Javra Nos. 1— 63 MVA and Nos 1—40MVA
· 132 KV High Tension Sub Center in Alot Nos. 1— 20 MVA and 1 Nos --20 MVA
· 132 KV High Tension Sub Center in Sailana Nos. 1— 40 MVA
Ø Demand of the Electricity in Ratlam Distt.
· Average demand of the electricity – 180 MVA
· Maximum demand at the time of Rabi crop- 250 MVA
· Demand in normal season -110 MVA
During the Rabi Season the three phase Electric Supply have been provided to Rural Areas for 7-8 hours per day whereas single phase electric supply have been provided to 3-4 hours.
v Education and Vocational Training Institute:
III. Demographic Data:
i Features of Population:
ii Urban Rural Population:
iii SC/ST, OBCs and Minorities:
The main occupation in the district is agriculture. However the agricultural practices are marked by a number of constraints. One of them is the small size of the land holdings. This has been progressively decreasing over the years due to the increased stress on land because of increasing population. Moreover since the irrigation facilities in the district are less and not very reliable, the agriculture is primarily rain fed. One of the major issues with rain fed agriculture is heavy dependency on rains and thus uncertainty of irrigation.
Very few families have taken up the micro enterprises like grocery shops, micro level trading, etc. The reasons for this may be the lack of adequate skills in entrepreneur ship and also lack of training in such skills.
i. Poverty ratios and intensity:
Almost 85 percent of the population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in the district. Small land holding with low agriculture productivity characterizes the agricultural pattern of the district. Due to the low agricultural productivity, the lack of land for cultivation and the limited opportunities for irrigation, the tribal population of Sailana and Bajna blocks have little opportunity for their sustainable income for through out the year. Therefore they migrate during winter and summer months to be engaged in agriculture labour and construction work. It is therefore poverty ratio in these two tribal blocks is much more than the national ratio. Bajna block having high intensity of poverty with 31.54 BPL/APL ratio followed by Sailana block with 22.23 BPL/APL ratios. Rest of the block have ratio less than 2.
Table - BPL Family Details
ii. BPL-APL families- Block wise BPL Families:
V. Economic Profile:
i. Area Under Principal Crop Cultivated:
Land Use Planning for Agriculture
ii. Animal Husbandry and Fisheries:
In Ratlam Distt. cattle population is in good amount. Mainly cow, ox, buffalos and goats are reared by the people. Buffalos and cow are reared for milking purpose. Thari and Malvi are two cow bread generally reared by people. Ox of these breed are used as drought power for agriculture. Where as Murra and Ganga breed of buffalos are uses for milking purpose. People of villages situated nearby city area are engaged in Dairy activity. Approximately 8000 families are engaged in dairy business.
iii. Mining and Forestry based industries:
In Ratlam distt mining of Black Basalt is doing by the people for metal production for Road and Building purpose. About 5000 labour are engaged for this work almost on a regular basis.
Plantation of 283000 plants in 06-07 had done by the forest department. The total 45.66 Lakhs Rs were invested by the deptt. From which 16704 labour mandays are generated.
iv. Rural Industries and other manufacturing:
In villages people are making earthen ware, bamboo ware, bamboo net, wooden work and earning good amount of money. Few families are engaged in making agriculture implements.
v. Services and other activities:
There are many families who are engaged in wide range of service sector they are the actual back bone of our social system. Approximately 1.50 Lakh family of the distt are engaged range from grocery shop, household services to electronic and medical services.
VI. Employment Status:
i. Employment in agriculture:
About 85 % public is living in village and they are mainly engaged in agriculture activity. This is highly unorganized sector and according to an approximation about 1.50 Lakh labour are engaged in agriculture and farm related activity.
ii. Employment in Animal Husbandry and Fisheries:
According to information of the fisheries department 5002 families are engaged in fisheries and related activity. In Ratlam approximately 8000 families are engaged in Dairy and dairy related activity.
iii. Employment in Rural Industries and other manufacturing:
According to an approximation by the labour department 10000 families are engaged in rural and urban industry.
iv. Employment in services and other activities:
It has got wide scope and approximately 1.50 Lakh families are engaged in services and other activity.
v. Employment /Unemployment scenario, seasonality and issues
The major employment sector in the distt. is agriculture sector. Therefore during good crop season people have good opportunity of getting good employment and when there are bad agricultural condition people have little employment. Secondly the agricultural based employment is of six month only. Rest of the time they have to work as construction labour or engaged themselves in other kind of activity. But this kind of labour force is big in quantity that all the labour can not be absorbed in other work. It is therefore most of the labour force remain unemployed for at least three to six month. These people get employment from the month of August to October for Kahrif crop and Mid January to Mid April. In the month of July, December and January here is very little job in agriculture. Therefore from November to January and April to June people need the jobs in local area for there survival. It is therefore in two Tribal Blocks Bajna and Sailana people starts migrating in search of job. Other sector like service sector, industries and farm based activities are stable sector, there do not have much up and downs. It is therefore necessary to provide employment to these people in above mentioned months which have no scope for any employment.
VII. Migration Pattern:
i. Migration Pattern:
The Ratlam Distt. having six blocks out of which Bajna and Sailana block are the heavy migration affected block. The intensity of migration is on an average is 65% where as it reaches to 70% in summer season particularly in June. Reason behind the migration is highly undulating terrain with degraded land quality and high runoff of monsoon water. The area is rainfed area and only Kharif crop is available to the resident of these block. Small land holding and low productivity of crops does not satisfy the need of the families which in turn promotes the migration. The migration in other block is very little and entirely different in nature in comparison to those Sailana and Bajna Block. The study have been made are based on these two blocks.
ii. Seasons of Migration:
It is been observed that the migration start with the crop cutting season which start from September – October month for Kharif crop cutting and March- April month for Rabi crop cutting. These people generally do not come back to their home till month of June. After the agricultural work these people stay in towns for construction activity and other works. The migration intensified after April in want of job for earning. They also moved to other places with their cattle for grass and fodder. They generally come back before the monsoon for preparation of their agriculture land.
iii. Rural to Urban Migration:
The general trend of migration here is from rural areas to urban areas though it starts from nearby rural areas to big city. These labour move from their area to Ratlam, Ujjain and Indore in Madhya Pradesh. They also move to Banswara, Chitorgarh, Kota in Rajasthan and Baroda, Dahod in Gujrat.
iv. Urban to Rural Areas Migration:
Urban to Rural area migration by the public is not seen in the Ratlam Distt. area.
v. Migration within district:
Migration within the district by the village people is normal practice but it is found to be comparatively in less quantity than the migration outside the distt.
vi. Migration outside district:
It is a general trend and mentioned in above paragraphs. Migration outside the district is almost 90%. During the migration period only old members of the family and children left to their home places to keep care of each other and to their cattles.
vii. Migration outside state its seasonality and regional pattern of out migration and in migration :
Sept.-Oct. May- June
Migration start from month of September every year and reaches to its peak during the month of May - June. The upper diagram is the figure which diagrammatically represents the migration pattern of the local people to out side state that is Rajasthan and Gujrat.
VIII. Wage Employment Generated during 2006-07 through wage employment scheme of Ministry of Rural Development and other Development Schemes of the Central Govrnment:
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